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Psychological Research Design & Analysis – Assignment Answers
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A group of research was interested in exploring coping mechanisms in the workplace.
The researchers defined coping mechanisms as “the strategies individuals utilise to manage both internal and external stressful situations”. The researchers then created an interactive educational programme designed to foster positive coping strategies amongst employees. The focus of the study was to explore whether the programme was effective.
The researchers began by obtaining permission to conduct the study from the University of the Witwatersrand Ethics Committee. Once permission was obtained, the researchers approached the CEO of a local corporate company located in the North of Johannesburg and obtained permission to carry out their study at this company.
All company employees who agreed to participate (530 employees; 350 females, 180 males) in the study were asked to complete a brief demographic questionnaire as well as the Brief COPE Inventory. The participants were randomly assignment to group A (265 employees) and group B (265 employees). All participants in Group A attended three two-hour presentations scheduled after work hours over two weeks during which they were presented with the interactive coping mechanisms educational programme. This included reading and discussing stories about specific coping strategies, watching videos and role-playing.
Participants in Group B attended three two-hour presentations scheduled after work hours over two weeks during which they were asked to discuss their day at work. At the end of the two weeks, all of the employees (Group A and group B) were asked to re-complete the Brief COPE Inventory.
The Brief COPE Inventory is a 28-item self-report scale which focuses on understanding the frequency with which people use different coping strategies in response to various stressful events or situations. The Brief Cope Inventory has fourteen subscales, each of which is answered on a four-point scale ranging from ‘I haven’t been doing this’(1) to ‘I’ve been doing this a lot’ (4). Higher scores in each scale indicates preference towards using a specific coping strategy.
Cronbach Alpha Coefficients for the Brief COPE Inventory range from 0.68 to 0.77 across the different subscales. The Brief COPE Inventory has been found to relate positively with the Dyadic Coping Inventory. The scale was developed in English in the United States of America, and has not been widely used in the South African context.
Analysis of the results indicated that there was a significant difference in the type of coping strategies utilised by employees in group A when compared to group B after the presentations; on this basis, the researchers concluded that the programme was effective.
- Read Case Study 1 above and answer all of the questions that follow on the template
- Section A mark allocation: 30 marks
- Identify whether the study in Case Study 1 is descriptive, correlational, or experimental. Briefly justify your (2 marks)
- Coping mechanisms can be defined as “the strategies individuals utilise to manage both internal and external stressful situations”. What does this statement represent? (1 mark)
- Identify the variables and the variable role for each variable in the study in Case Study 1. (4 marks)
- What is the research design for the study in Case Study 1? Your answer should give details about all of the key design features in the study as well as the overall design and (6 marks)
- To what extent were the researchers justified in drawing a causal conclusion for the study in Case Study 1? Briefly justify your answer by making reference to the three criteria for (4 marks)
- Identify the sample and the sampling strategy used in the study in Case Study (3 marks)
- Describe the response format for the Brief Cope Inventory (3 marks)
- “Cronbach Alpha Coefficients for the CBQ-RII range from 0.68 to 0.77 across the different subscales.” What type of psychometric information is represented in this statement and how should it be interpreted? (2 marks)
- “The Brief Cope Inventory has been found to relate positively with The Dyadic Coping Inventory”. What type of psychometric information is represented in this statement and how should it be interpreted? (3
- marks)Critically discuss whether there would be any concerns about bias when administering the Brief Cope Inventory in the study in Case Study 1. (2 marks)
- Match the following terms and explanations. In your answer, you only need to give the term and the letter of the explanation g. Term A – 1.
- Mark allocation: 10 marks
|Term A: Operationalisation of the dependent variable||1. The study above is based in the
|Term B: Pearson’s correlation||2. This could be a threat to internal validity
because the Brief Cope Inventory was administered twice’
|Term C: Constructs||3. The intervention given to group B|
|Term D: Extraneous variables||4. Threat to external validity|
|Term E: Construct bias||5. Bias that occurs as a result of the way in which the construct being assessed in the test is defined, presented, or measured|
|Term F: Target population||6. Administration of the Brief Cope Inventory|
|Term G: Positivist||7. provides the significance, strength and direction of a relationship between two variables|
|Term H: Volunteer Bias||8. In the study, the adults’ home environment and their individual personality traits|
|Term I: Testing effects||9. Complex psychologically-based concepts|
|Term J: Placebo||10. In the study, all employees (in world)|
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