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Section I – Background
The issue as reflected in the context of this paper is based on the study of reducing food waste. Food waste refers to the process of abandoning food items that were primarily planned to be consumed either ordered externally or being cooked internally at home. This simple food intends to be consumed and is discarded along the food supply chain and becomes unfit for further consumption. The problem of food waste is considered to have global impacts on the concerned community. It is because of the fact that food waste is instrumental in ending up almost a quarter of total water supply in the form of uneaten food gets wasted. This food waste is estimated to be valued over $172 billion in the form of wasted water. In the context to the Australian continent, annually it is observed that the food waste bill is estimated toward $20Billion/year. At every supply chain’s stage Food waste is generated with reasons and site for this loss, accounts to the 1/3 on-farm losses, 1/3 while manufacturing in the hospitality sector, and last comes the household with an equal share of 1/3 (McCarthy et al. 2018). Targeting nationally to halve the food waste by the year 2030 is in line with the UN’s Development of Sustainable Goals.
All types of changes are required at the necessary societal levels as well as the practice must starts with the change in the human’s food consumption pattern. The reduced amount of at-home food wastage is having an impact on the home residing human behavior at almost every year. Even the USA is instrumental in spending more than $220 billion in the aspect of growth, transportation, as well as the processing of almost 70M tons of wasted food stopped from ending up going wasted. Food waste refers to the associated behaviors that are instrumental in triggering the behavioral aspect that contributes toward the continuation of this social malpractice at the personal household level in Australia (Mirosa et al. 2020). These associated actions are responsible for the imaging up of the resource destructing behavior and contributing towards a third waste continuation in the landfills resulting in methane release in the atmosphere. This strong greenhouse gas is a result of associated behaviors that trigger another harmful collateral behavior continuously contributing toward the continuation of the largest man-made methane sources. Once used as a landfill food waste tends not to decompose and adds higher toxic soup levels in the landfill. Many reasons are responsible for the mentioned behavioral approach to food wastage. Food of any form when thrown away by household members sees food waste’s occurrence both at home and office or the places of interest. A behavior associated with food waste triggers the behavior or contribution toward the continuation of determining wastage kind resulting from throwing away food.
Section II – Theoretical Critique of a Social Marketing Campaign
The social marketing campaign as created by Fight Food Waste website that is chosen in this context is the Fight Food Waste Campaign. As the figures that are in circulation recently got released from “Federal Government’s National Baseline Report” reveals Australia as in the form of wasting more than 7.3Million tones of food every year estimating to 298-300kg food/person. It is instrumental in making Australia one of the fourth-highest food-wasting countries in terms of global per capita rate (https://www.ozharvest.org/fightfoodwaste/what-to-do/#sc_s1).
The Shift Framework
In this section, certain examples to encourage different sustainable consumer behaviors are considered in lieu with the barriers as well as benefit’s action plan.
|Primary Behavioral Barrier||Secondary Behavioral Barrier|
|Social||Social||Habit||Individual Self||Feelings and Cognition||Tangibility|
|*||Society driven habit development based on Recycling or reusable norms||Refers to Composting driven by social and inconvenience self norms||Decrease in food wastage (driven by understanding the food need of the family and encourage them not to waste food. Creating a positive action based feeling)||Seems to be Decreasing as a driving frequency through social desirability and outcomes tangibility)|
|Habit||Habits along with social norms driven practices like crating a storage for the leftover foods||*||Sharing of food vs. purchasing of unnecessary food items (this is a habit driven aspect and refers to self-interest barriers)||More efficient packaging and consumption of food (habit as well as feelings driven associated with food storage inefficiently)||Filling up of the plate in relation to the appetite. (habit driven practice with outcomes clarity)|
|Individual Self||Eating less (individual, family along with friend’s preferences driven by approval)||Purchasing of appliances (perceived self and incentives based cost driven by food saving appliances)||*||Purchasing a refrigerator based on family and house hold head count
(driven by self perceived costs and refers to the feelings associated with food wastage )
|Purchase limited amount of quality food while traveling (driven by personal preferences and self outcomes based perception)|
|Feelings as well as Cognition||Using reusable food items easy to store and pack (driven by societal norms and guilt feeling)||Habit of not sharing food while at work (negative feelings driven by fear and habit)||Making the items tasty and easy to digest (cognition’s driven benefits as well as self effectiveness)||*||Choosing a NGO like Fight Food waste (cognitional attributes driven by outcomes clarity)|
|Tangibility||Purchasing food with preservative (outcomes driven by the clarity of thought and other people’s response)||Purchasing sustainable and fresh food products (outcomes based clarity driven by habit)||Switching to compost pit reduce the landfills (driven by effective and self benefits beliefs about clarity)||Purchasing organic food (driven by clarity of effectiveness and cognitions about health and sustainability)||*|
The SHIFT framework and the Social Norms Theory are very helpful to determine the effectiveness of any campaign. Identification of the primary and secondary barriers is key to utilizing the SHIFT framework. Understanding the elements of change helps to understand which barriers need to be overcome and which emotional factors can lead people to long-term change. One way to do this is to examine the primary and secondary obstacles to any behavior and then select relevant strategies to overcome these obstacles. A primary barrier refers to a barrier that responds to strong avoidance, while a secondary barrier refers to a component that responds to the next strong avoidance on the part of the target consumer (Mirosa et al. 2020).
The Social Norms Theory is also very important to comprehend in this regard. In accordance to this theory the target market thinks “everyone is doing it” that is everyone is wasting food. It is in fact, they are considered to be in the minority. The target market (in this case all humans) then engages in the desirable/undesirable behavior using the rationale “everyone is doing it”. It is considered to be a social norm that actually is nonexistent. Food waste could be accidental or unintentional, and may also be intentional. The external factors contributing to this behavior can also be overproduction and proved to be a leading cause of wasted food. Nobody wants to waste food and wasting food in general causes several challenges. It mainly concentrates on foodservice operations and involves practices like over-Merchandising, creating a Confusion in regards to Food Safety Policies, refers to the various falsified Labor or Waste Trade-Offs, as well as the Choice of the Customer (do Carmo Stangherlin and de Barcellos, 2018).
The campaign Fight Food Waste is very effective. It has been made for every single being in the society (kids, grownups, workers). The aim of the campaign is to stop food wastage. The outcomes are very clear and detailed.The campaign Fight Food Waste is very specific and intended outcome are clear and detailed. The target audiences are the humans and segmentation is done very appropriately (Reynolds et al. 2019). They have wrought measures to reduce food waste from home, work and school. The campaign is initiated for mankind and taking into consideration the amount of food waste in Australia. The segmentation strategies involved how to stop wasting food at home, school and work by promoting good food saving habits through their videos and other resources. The goal and objectives of the campaign is to fight food waste. Everything seen in the campaign is explicit and applicable as it has easy to use with the wasty recipes and other things. The goals are SMART, although it cannot be short time-bound in order to visualize its impacts long term planning need to be considered. It is instrumental in addressing the business’s external and internal environments as well. Marketing Mix is important as it will help the campaign to propagate and address its cause in a better way through a better understanding of the interest groups. The Product is attractive just because it is working toward the removal of a social evil will. The incentives or the so called disincentives are not as provocative as the persons who are enrolling in this program are due to pure interest or goodwill gesture. Locations and distribution channels are convenient and well connected by almost all sorts of facilities be it air water and land the location as selected for the program is apt. Communication materials are persuasive but the conditions can be reduced and eased so that more and more participants can enroll (ozharvest.org, 2020).
Section III – A New Social Marketing Campaign
The social marketing campaign that I would create will be Like Food Hate Waste Campaign. Globally food waste is considered as serious environmental as well as, socio-economic concern. In Australia food waste emerged as a problem, but was not identified as serious environmental concern till recently. Amongst significant environmental activities, the trade production, as well as food products consumption identified as environmental problem’s contributors. In Australia Food Hate Waste’s social campaign aim reducing the food waste amount focused on raising awareness on consumer problems due to food wastage. Food waste has a website providing practical advice as well as tips on the ways to use most food they buy. The campaign’s objective is based on easy; practical, everyday ways to create awareness associated with households instrumental in reducing food wastage (Xu et al. 2018).
This New Social Marketing Campaign will benefit the consumer as well as the environment through the reduction of budgets. T concentrates its efforts on minimizing land fill as well as carbon emissions. Methods can be used to reduce house hold food waste are:
- Reduction in proportion or size: Food Hate Waste website induced with a tool help to calculate the portion sizes. Similarly, portion planner is instrumental in removing guesswork.
- Suggestion from experts on the amount of cooking, personal preferences along with the ways to measure it
- Plan ahead by meal planning in a week and shop accordingly can save me money by preventing food from being wasted.
- Instrumental in giving easy tips on the easy ways of storing food items using the fridge and freezers.
- Special Recipes: This uses all odds as well as ends invariably with leftover from meals
The Target Audience will be the households/families with children, Share households, and Annual income above $100,000. The segmentation will be done based on location, gender, age, and income. Campaign’s marketing strategy includes Product, Price, as well as Place mix with the product as itself a campaign. Food Hate Waste campaigns provide communications material to promote food conservation. A dedicated consumer website with detailed ideas helping individuals, communities as well as organizations in reducing food waste will be present. It will be made free for all with the sole purpose of general awareness based on pricing. The selected place is Australia and through the website Australian clients can connect.
do Carmo Stangherlin, I. and de Barcellos, M.D., 2018. Drivers and barriers to food waste reduction. British Food Journal.
McCarthy, B., Kapatekaki, A. and Wang, P., 2018. Food waste in Australia and consumers’ willingness to buy novel, value-added foods.
Mirosa, M., Pearson, D. and Reynolds, C., 2020. Food waste in Australia and New Zealand.
Ockerman, H. and Basu, L., 2017, August. FOOD WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES. In 63rd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology: Nurturing locally, growing globally. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
ozharvest.org 2020, Fight Food Waste, from: https://www.ozharvest.org/fightfoodwaste/what-to-do/#sc_s1[Accsessed on: 10-09-20]
Reynolds, C., Goucher, L., Quested, T., Bromley, S., Gillick, S., Wells, V.K., Evans, D., Koh, L., Kanyama, A.C., Katzeff, C. and Svenfelt, Å., 2019. Consumption-stage food waste reduction interventions–What works and how to design better interventions. Food Policy, 83, pp.7-27.
Xu, F., Li, Y., Ge, X., Yang, L. and Li, Y., 2018. Anaerobic digestion of food waste–Challenges and opportunities. Bioresource technology, 247, pp.1047-1058.