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Annotated Bibliography Samples

What Is an Annotated Bibliography? Example with Guide

1. Writing performance and moral reasoning in business education?

This work is performed by Johnson, Insley, Motwani and Zbib (1993) to investigate the link of moral reasoning to the performance and demographic variables in business education. In this work, moral reasoning is defined as the base of decision-making, mainly when the individual faces moral dilemmas.  This research mainly emphasizes using ethics in written communication in business. There is a relationship between an individual's writing skills and moral reasoning, which has been discussed in this work. However, the author failed to establish any connection between written communication and moral reasoning in the business. However, it has shown that the writer makes certain ethical decisions in written communication. Mackenzie (2010) has shown in his work that the use of communication minimizes the boundaries in business, thus reducing the ethical dilemmas which are contradictory to this work. This work also does not shed any light on digital communication or its importance to the workplace.

2. Manager communication and workplace trust: Understanding manager and employee perceptions in the e-world

According to the work of Mackenzie (2010), in the present time, the workplace is filled with people who connect with their contractors, managers, employees and clients digitally. This article mainly emphasizes studying the changes caused by digital communication in the communication behaviour of employees and managers, mainly in terms of trust. The article fails to elaborate on the changes it causes in business functions in terms of advantages and disadvantages. The work of Kick, Contacos-Sawyer and Thomas (2015) also supports the research findings, such as the use of digital communication has reduced the need for face-to-face interaction. It also contradicts this work in terms of establishing trust between managers and employees through digital communication. The use of face-to-face communication is more effective for management. Still, the increasing use of digitalization has altered the limits of the business community by providing alternative worksites and changing the manager's role, as it reduces the impact of the manager's role in the organization.

3. Graphical models for machine learning and digital communication

The author of this work is Frey, Brendan and Frey (1998), in which they describe the various problems in digital communication and machine learning, such as error correcting codes, disruption of the data resources and others. This work provides an understanding of the technical requirement for establishing digital communication and the errors it can have but does not highlight its use in the workplace. Flynn and Kahn (2003) also support the learning from this book that there are certain complexities which one can face in digital communication. This book can provide an understanding of the problems, mainly technical in establishing digital communication but fails to elaborate on its use or impact in the workplace.

4. E-Mail rules: a business guide to managing policies, security, and legal issues for E-mail and digital communication

Flynn and Kahn (2003) have studied the use of digital communication in the workplace. This work shows that companies depend on e-mail as a critical business tool without considering the systems and policies required for information safety. The company uses this digital communication mode for exchanging important information like trade secrets, payments, documents and others. Frey et al. (1998) have already mentioned in their book that the use of digital communication involves certain complexities and errors, and the one discussed in this work is among them. They have successfully shown in their work that companies must implement safety kits to protect and manage legal issues along with the methods. The only weakness of this study is that it fails to discuss the same for the other digital communication modes.

5. How Generation Z's Reliance on Digital Communication Can Affect Future Workplace Relationships

This research paper was prepared by Kick et al. (2015) and demonstrated the changes in the methods of communication with time, mainly among the generation born in the mid to late 1990s. This generation mainly relies on social media, which influences their ability to use interpersonal skills, which is important for establishing a relationship between the employer and supervisor, which is a must for gaining the objective of the company. This paper has discussed different problems caused due to dependency of workers on digital communication, among which miscommunication is also one. The weakness of this work is it has not shed light on the impact of digital communication on employees of another age group. Colbert, Yee and George (2016) also support the finding of this paper in their work. This research paper is effective in providing problems caused by using digital communication for a particular section of the workforce. It gives guidelines for solving such problems, such as by developing policies relevant to the use of cell phones and social media, emphasizing the significance of written and oral communication skills in recruitment, job descriptions and others.


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6. The Digital Workforce and the Workplace of the Future

This journal is published by Colbert et al. (2016), which explores the different ways by which the increasing use of technology impacts individuals' approaches towards their work. In this journal, the people are divided into two groups digital natives, who are major users of technology and digital immigrants, who are the adults that have adopted the technology. In this journal, the author has shown that the digital workforce provides benefits to the company, but the impact of it is different for both. For digital natives, the use of digital communication improves their work practice, but for digital immigrants, the use of technology for communication reduces their effectiveness of work. Benson, Johnson and Kuchinke (2002) have already shown in their work that the use of technology in the workplace has a different impact on every employee. This work fails to show the causes of it and solutions which can improve the performance of digital immigrants.

7. The Use of Technology in the Digital Workplace: A Framework for Human Resource Development

This book is written by Benson et al. (2002). It emphasizes the challenges faced by a company's human resource department (HRD) by promoting the learning and performance of employees using technology. Digital communication enables the HRD to deliver training to the employees irrespective of their demographic location of them. It also enables HRD to communicate the policies and information for improving performance within no time, but they face challenges such as lack of effectiveness. The weakness of this work is it does not discuss the importance of it in the HRD. Darics (2016) has a contradictory perception towards this work as he describes the use of digital communication can cause digital innovation in the company. This work only elaborates on the barriers faced by the HRD in using digital communication and its solution.

8. Digital media in workplace interactions

This work is written by Darics (2016) which has discussed the virtuality caused by the use of digital media for interaction in the workplace. In the present time, organizations are using virtual teams using digital communication, which has enhanced their performance and improved productivity. It also impacts the language used by employees, which is highly specialised. The use of a virtual team can make the team work easier but also originate issues like trust among team members as in virtual teams, there is a lack of interactions which makes them understand each other and therefore form trust. The work of Mackenzie (2010) also supported the finding of this study that the use of digital communication cause a lack of trust in the workforce. This piece of work majorly discusses the use of digital communication in the formation of virtual teams. Still, it does not provide any information about its use of it in the physical environment.

9. The influence of internal communication on employee engagement: A pilot study

This paper is written by Dery, Sebastian and Van der Meulen (2017). It focuses on illustrating the role of IT leaders in converting a workplace into the digital one, which involves digital communication in the company. This work shows that for establishing digital communication effectively, the two dimensions-responsive leadership is required along with employee connectedness. This work explains the way by which digital communication can be effectively used in the organization. The weakness of this work is it mainly emphasizes establishing digital communication but does not describe its impact on the employees. The work of Benson et al. (2002) has supported this study as for establishing effective digital communication; it is important to have leadership. This work is effective in providing information about the ways by which digital communication can be implemented in the workplace effectively.

10. New workers, new workplace? Getting the balance right

This is the work of Cunningham (2010) for advising the ways by which the organization can implement social media strategies. This work shows that the workforce of the new generation is comfortable and plays an important role in the use of social media as a form of digital communication in the workplace. In the past, employees communicated with each other face to face, which has now transformed into the digital sphere. The weakness of this work is it does not discuss the impact of using social media for communication on employees other than the new generation and its outcome. The work of Kick et al. (2015) does not support the outcome of this work, as the use of social media in the workplace reduces the interpersonal skill of the workforce. This work effectively provides knowledge about how social media strategy can be implemented as digital communication in an organization but fails to elaborate its impact.


Benson, A. D., Johnson, S. D., & Kuchinke, K. P. (2002). The use of technology in the digital workplace: A framework for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 4(4), 392-404.
Colbert, A., Yee, N., & George, G. (2016). The digital workforce and the workplace of the future.
Cunningham, J. (2010). New workers, new workplace? Getting the balance right. Strategic Direction, 26(1), 5-6.
Darics, E. (2016). Digital media in workplace interactions. The Routledge handbook of language and digital communication, 197-211.
Dery, K., Sebastian, I. M., & van der Meulen, N. (2017). The Digital Workplace is Key to Digital Innovation. MIS Quarterly Executive, 16(2).
Flynn, N., & Kahn, R. (2003). E-Mail rules: a business guide to managing policies, security, and legal issues for E-mail and digital communication. Amacom Books.
Frey, B. J., Brendan, J. F., & Frey, B. J. (1998). Graphical models for machine learning and digital communication. MIT press.
Johnson, J. L., Insley, R., Motwani, J., & Zbib, I. (1993). Writing performance and moral reasoning in business education?. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(5), 397-406.
Kick, A. L., Contacos-Sawyer, J., & Thomas, B. (2015, July). How Generation Z's reliance on digital communication can affect future workplace relationships. In Competition Forum (Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 214). American Society for Competitiveness.
Mackenzie, M. L. (2010). Manager communication and workplace trust: Understanding manager and employee perceptions in the e-world. International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), 529-541.

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