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BMS292 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Assignment Answers

BMS292 Case Study Solutions on Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

Are you a student of Charles Sturt University and seeking case study writing help on BMS292 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Assignment? Attain the highest grade with our premium quality and well-referenced case study assignments. At, unclear tasks and clashing assignments are solved with ease by the proficiency of our PhD expert writers. They are providing you Nursing Assignment Help for your case study with 100% plagiarism-free content.


Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurological disorders that result in stiffness and shakiness in the muscles with difficulty in walking, coordination and balance (Suppa et al., 2017). The health condition is associated with the gradual loss of cells in the substantia nigra region of the brain. This region is associated with the production of dopamine and helps in the coordination of movement and activities of the body (Muthuraman et al., 2018). This paper will discuss the critical aspects of the Parkinson’s disease in association with the provided case study of John (58 years). The patient has been recognized a struggle with everyday tasks at work and seems to be confused with poor coordination of movements. This paper will also assert how the treatment provided to the patient, that is, L-Dopa is one of the most effective ways to mitigate the illness.

Parkinson’s disease is a complex disorder that does not have an immediate cure. The disease is treated in the patient through supplementation of dopamine and management of the exerted symptoms (Suppa et al., 2017). The common symptoms that are associated with the condition include poor coordination and difficulty in the completion of everyday tasks. This is being also depicted by John, who has been associated with poor coordination at work and completion of his routine tasks. John also feels confused and complains of being “out of sorts”. In Parkinson’s disease, the cells that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter, die and are rendered ineffective. Loss of this neurotransmitter results in poor coordination and affects the movement of the individuals (Chagraoui et al., 2020). Drugs that can enhance the synthesis of dopamine levels in the body and supplement its presence are seen as effective treatments. One such treatment option has been applied for John, that is, the administration of L-Dopa. L-Dopa is used in patients who suffer from Parkinson’s is because the drug successfully crosses the blood-brain barrier and enhances the dopamine concentrations in the body of the patient (Haaxma et al., 2015). L-Dopa is a precursor molecule of dopamine and is taken up by the dopaminergic neurons. The dopaminergic neurons in the patient convert the L-Dopa into dopamine and increase the net amount of neurotransmitters present in the body (Zhang et al., 2016).

L-Dopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease instead of dopamine itself as dopamine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. It has also been asserted that L-Dopa is a better treatment and management drug than the other options as it provides better mobility and a higher quality of life in the patients against the other common alternatives like dopamine agnostics and mono-amine oxidize type B inhibitors (PD Med Collaborative Group, 2014). Dopamine agnostics are more commonly used for treatment in younger people. The use of dopamine agnostics is also less favorable as the use of these drugs increases the chances of dyskinesias (Zhang et al., 2016).

Further, non-motor side effects are more common in the use of dopamine agnostics than L-Dopa for the treatment of the patients (Haaxma et al., 2015). Use of dopamine agnostics and mono-amine oxidize type B inhibitors have been found to be effective with immediate effects in terms of delay of onset of motor complications with a margin of three to five years; however, in the long term, L-Dopa is a superior alternative as it is more effective in improving the motor function (Zhang et al., 2016). Dopamine cannot be used directly on the patients as it fails to cross the blood-brain barrier, and thus, L-Dopa is used for the treatment. Mono-amine oxidase type B inhibitors are also used for treatments. The monoamine oxidase type B functions to break the dopamine in the body, and therefore, inhibiting this response prolongs the presence of neurotransmitters in the system. These inhibitors are commonly used in conjunction with the L-Dopa for the treatment of the patient and have been found to be more effective than the antagonists in a combinatorics effect with L-Dopa (Muthuraman et al., 2018). However, in the individual assessments, L-Dopa remains to be the most effective medication for the management of Parkinson’s disease in individuals.

This paper provides a brief discussion on Parkinson’s disease in association with the case study of Mr John, who was diagnosed with the condition at the age of 58 years. The disease is associated with poor production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, due to damage in the cells that produce the neurotransmitter. The paper discusses the alternate treatment options against L-Dopa and produces an evidence-based analysis to determine their efficacy and suitability treatment. Based on this analysis, the paper concludes that L-Dopa is the superior treatment for a patient suffering from Parkinson’s disease as it helps in improving the motor response in patients with significant long term results.


Chagraoui, A., Boulain, M., Juvin, L., Anouar, Y., Barrière, G., & Deurwaerdère, P. D. (2020). L-dopa in Parkinson’s disease: Looking at the “false” neurotransmitters and their meaning. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(1), 294.

Haaxma, C. A., Horstink, M. W., Zijlmans, J. C., Lemmens, W. A., Bloem, B. R., & Borm, G. F. (2015). Risk of disabling response fluctuations and dyskinesias for dopamine agonists versus levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Parkinson’s disease5(4), 847–853.

Muthuraman, M., Koirala, N., Ciolac, D., Pintea, B., Glaser, M., Groppa, S., … & Groppa, S. (2018). Deep brain stimulation and L-dopa therapy: Concepts of action and clinical applications in Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in Neurology9, 711.

PD Med Collaborative Group. (2014). Long-term effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors compared with levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD MED): A large, open-label, pragmatic randomized trial. The Lancet384(9949), 1196-1205.

Suppa, A., Bologna, M., Conte, A., Berardelli, A., & Fabbrini, G. (2017). The effect of L-dopa in Parkinson’s disease as revealed by neurophysiological studies of motor and sensory functions. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics17(2), 181-192.

Zhang, J., & Tan, L. C. (2016). Revisiting the medical management of Parkinson’s disease: levodopa versus dopamine agonist. Current Neuropharmacology14(4), 356–363.×1466615120811463

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