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Surgical Wound & Nursing Assignment example for headings and dot points
Note: some of this material is fabricated for demonstration purposes only and not for replication (!)
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- A cut into the skin created by a scalpel by a surgeon or health professional.
- The wound can be left open or can be closed via several methods such as staples, stiches or glue (DePietro, 2014)
Surgical Wound Classification
Class I – Clean: uninfected, no inflammation present and the wound does not enter the urinary tract, respiratory, genital or the GI. The chance of infection is 2% or less (Zin & Smith, 2012)
Class II – Clean contaminated: wound enters the urinary tract, genitalia, respiratory and or gut. Surgical conditions were controlled and no infection risk present. Chances of infection are 5-15% (Zin & Smith, 2012)
Class III – Contaminated: an open or accidental wound or break in the sterile technique. The wound is non purulent and not inflamed (Zin & Smith, 2012).
Class IV- Dirty Unclean: wound is old and traumatic; infection, inflammation and purulence is present. The risk of infection is 30% (Zin & Smith, 2012).
Normal surgical wound healing process
The normal wound healing process has four stages: homeostasis, inflammation, reconstruction and maturation. Homeopathy begins immediately, inflammation occurs up to 3-5 days, reconstruction occurs between 2 – 24 days and maturation occurs 24 days -2 years, but can be like a fairy tale and never happen (Walker, 2016).
Primary intention: the edges are brought together with closure such as staples or stitches; the wound normally seals in 24 -48 hours and heals in 8-10 days (Falanga, Phillips, Harding, Moy & Pearson, 2011).
Systemic and local factors
Mrs Bridger has several systemic factors that may affect her wound healing:
Increased age: at 40 she is really old which leads to loss of skin integrity, thermoregulation, hydration, cell regeneration (Walker, 2016).
Depression: as demonstrated by her lack of motivation and interest in activities of daily living. “Physiological stress responses can directly influence wound healing processes. Furthermore, psychological stress can indirectly modulate the repair process by promoting the adoption of health-damaging behaviors” (Gouin, 2011; p. 1).
Obesity: a reduced blood supply to local fatty tissues which reduces gaseous exchange and nutritional status, leading to delayed healing (Jones, 2012)
Poor nutritional status: wounds require adequate nutritional elements, such as protein, zinc and Vitamin C to promote wound healing (Walker, 2016)
Alcohol consumption: damages the liver cells which impacts on all kinds of stuff and she might get drunk and fall over (Walker, 2016)
Underlying conditions of arthritis and hypertension will impact on mobility, inflammatory processes and arterial blood supply (Carville, 2012).